Tag Archive for Herbs


Lemon Balm. The herb of many talents. This is one of the few herbs known as a veritable ‘medicine chest’. It’s actions are many. It’s mild, yet potent, acting almost like an herbal blend all by itself. However, in a herbal blend it has a reputation of being a powerful potentiator for the other herbs. Lemon Balm is definitely a “must have” herb for every apothecary.

COMMON NAME: Lemon Balm, Sweet Balm, Honey Balm, Bee Balm, Balm

LATIN NAME: Melissa officinalis

FAMILY: Lamiaceae (Mint)

PLANT PARTS USED: Leaf, Essential Oil

ENERGETICS: Warming (Ayurveda) or Cooling (TCM & Western Herbalism); Moistening

TASTE: Sour, “Lemon-y”, Aromatic

ACTIONS: Anti-depressant, Anti-spasmodic, Anti-viral, Carminative, Cholegogue, Diaphoretic, Emmenogogue (mild), Hepatic, Hypnotic, , Memory/Cognition Enhancer, Nervine, Sedative, Spasmolytic, Trophorestorative, Beneficial cardiovascular effects: Antiarrhythmogenic, Hypotensive, Infarct Size-Reducing, Negative Chronotropic & Dromotropic, Sedative Stimulation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthesis, Styptic, Vasorelaxant, Vulnerary

Internal Use Anxiety, Cold, Colic, Depression, Digestion (poor), Excitability, Fever, Flu, Gas/bloating, Graves Disease, Headache, Heart Palpitations, Herpes Viruses, Hyperactivity, Hypertension, Hyperthyroidism, Memory and Cognition Booster (in low to moderate doses only), Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Insomnia, Delayed Menstruation, Nausea, Restlessness, Stomach Cramps, Teething, Urinary Infections, Viral Infection

The juice of balm glueth together greene wounds.

John Gerard, English Herbalist

Topical Use Apply the leaves to skin diseases and wounds, including chicken pox eruptions, psoriasis, eczema and venomous stings.

It is now recognized as a scientific fact that the balsamic oils of aromatic plants make excellent surgical dressings: they give off ozone and thus exercise anti-putrescent effects. Being chemical hydrocarbons , they contain so little oxygen that in wounds dressed with the fixed balsamic herbal oils, the atomic germs of disease are starved out, and the resinous part of these balsamic oils, as they dry upon the sore or wound, seal it up and effectually exclude all noxious air.

Mrs. M. Grieve

ABOUT: Lemon Balm is a herbaceous perennial plant in the mint family. When it flowers it is an attractant for bees, hence the name “bee balm”. Originally, it comes from Greece and was spread by the Romans in their travels. It is most commonly considered a native of Europe, central Asia, and Iran.

Lemon balm… “Caus(es) the mind and heart to become merry.”

~ Nicolas Culpepper, British Botanist, Herbalist & Physician (1616-1654)

Clinical trials have revealed some of the positive effects of Lemon Balm due to its ability to stimulate the neurotransmitter acetylcholine receptors. This affects mood, memory, sleep and cognition. It also stimulates GABA A receptors which have significant physiological and therapeutic implications due to Lemon balm’s ability to inhibit certain responses in the Central Nervous System and throughout the body. GABA’s ability to attach to these receptors plays a significant role in modulating anxiety, fear and stress.

Lemon Balm has traditionally been known to relieve heart palpitations, this has also been demonstrated clinically in humans. It appears that its polyphenols have antioxidant properties and the ability to scavenge free radicals. It ameliorates oxidative stress, has anti-inflammatory effects, activates M2 and antagonism of β1 receptors in the heart, is able to block voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels, stimulates endothelial nitric oxide synthesis, prevents fibrotic changes, and more.1

There are herbalists who assert that Lemon Balm has the ability to normalize thyroid hormones. Scientific studies generally look at Lemon Balm’s ability to normalize hyperthyroid conditions such as Grave’s Disease but do not generally consider its balancing properties for the underactive thyroid.

Oral = Tincture 2-6 dropperfuls 3x per day
Infusion (dried or fresh)= 2-3 TSPS herb per Cup 2-3 times per day

CONTRAINDICATIONS: Using Lemon Balm as a whole herb carries no significant contraindications. However, as is it a known potentiator when used with herbs it would be wise to use it apart from pharmaceuticals as well. Additionally, its sedative properties should be considered when driving or operating heavy machinery – especially at the higher dosages. It is considered safe when used in moderation during pregnancy.

FOOD ENHANCEMENT: Beverages, add a few leaves to salad, soups, sauces, marinades, etc.


Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine by David Hoffman

A Modern Herbal by Mrs. M. Grieve F.R.H.S


COMMON NAME: Golden Root, Roseroot, Arctic Rose
LATIN NAME: Rhodiola rosea
PLANT PART USED: Roots/Rhizomes
ENERGETICS: Cool, Dry, Aromatic
TASTE: Sweet, Slightly Bitter, Spicy

PRIMARY ACTIONS: Adaptogenic, astringent, antioxidant, cardioprotective, immuno-stimulant, neuro-stimulant, tonic

ABOUT: R. rosea is primarily found at higher elevations in the cold mountains and sea cliff rocks of Scandinavia, Tibet, Siberia, China, Himalayas, and North America. There are over 50 species of Rhodiola. The studies and use of the herb only apply to R. rosea L. (Linnaeus instituted plant naming in the 1700’s).

R. rosea is a perennial succulent that can grow approximately 12 to 36 inches in height and 12 inches across. The fleshy leaves are whorled toothed with an oblong shape. The small, yellow flowers are terminal and multiple. The thick root and rhizomes smell of roses when cut. As a dioecious plant, it requires both male and female plants to be grown in the same area.

INDICATIONS / SYMPTOMS: Rhodiola is used to help combat fatigue, psychological stress and depression, restore energy, improve over-all vitality and longevity, increase mental performance and the ability to concentrate, modulate and support the neuroendocrine system (HPA-axis and more), increase cellular energy, protect and restore nervous system and brain, enhance physical performance, improve resistance to high-altitude sickness, help recovery from head trauma, strengthen immune, and protect cells from chemical and radiation damage. It is stimulating but not anxiety producing – in spite of the energy increasing effect it helps improve sleep quality. While it may seem counter-intuitive, one of the benefits of Rhodiola is that it helps regulate sleep and improve the quality of sleep.

CONTRAINDICATIONS: Not recommended for use during pregnancy and lactation or for those with severe anxiety or mania.

Tincture (1:5): 30-90 drops, one-two times per day*
Standardized Product: 75-100 mg, one-two times per day* (Standardized products should contain at least 3% rosavins and about 1% salidroside as this is close to the natural composition within the roots.)

*Always start at a lower dose and increase slowly to find the best individual dose. Low doses tend to be more stimulating and high doses tend to be more sedating.

Menthol Chest Balm

by Johanice De Jesus
Student: CMH, MH & TND programs

Have you ever looked at the ingredients in those store-bought menthol chest rubs?

When you are congested, with cloudy eyes and you feel like your body is going to fall apart, it does not even cross your mind to read the ingredients, but I warn you, you will not like to discover what you have just rubbed on your chest. Commercial chest balms contain a mixture of derivatives that one would not expect. Although it will give some relief to the respiratory tract, you have just made an innocent, but serious mistake that can have serious consequences on your health.

Classic over-the-counter chest rubs generally have less than 10 percent herbal ingredients and are about 90 percent petroleum jelly in gel or cream form, which is usually combined with turpentine. When petroleum jelly is not properly or completely refined, as is sometimes the case in the U.S., it may be contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are known carcinogens, especially when used for an extended period of time.

Fortunately, there are excellent natural and organic respiratory chest rubs that you can make right at home that will offer sincere and safe relief for your health and the health of your entire family (especially for the little ones!) with all the benefits of herbs and without carcinogenic ingredients. . . such as those found in: Vaseline, or other P.A.H.S. pollutants.

So, allow me to share some information with you since the cold and flu season is upon us and we turn to products such as these in search of relief. If this is the case, be sure to always seek a natural response and use the opportunity to develop your trustworthy herbal passion.

Let’s Get Started!

Gather the following ingredients to create your respiratory remedy:

Menthol Chest Balm


  • Bees Wax – 40 grams
  • Menthol Crystals – 30 grams
  • Grape Seed Oil – 10 oz.
  • Eucalyptus Leaves – 3 oz.
  • Mint Leaves – 3 oz.
  • Rosemary – 3 oz.
  • Vitamin E – 1 Tsp

*At the end add 5 drops each of Rosemary, Lavender and Eucalyptus essential oils.

STEP #1 ~

Place the following ingredients into a glass mason jar.

  • 10 oz. Grape Seed Oil
  • 3 oz. Eucalyptus Leaves
  • 3 oz. Rosemary
  • 3 oz. Mint Leaves

STEP #2 ~

Put the jar into a bain-marie water bath for 4 hours on a low temperature. During the maceration time, occasionally stir using a wooden utensil.

STEP #3 ~

When the maceration process in the water bath is finished, proceed to strain the oil to remove the herbs. For this, use:

  • Clean Glass Bowl
  • Strainer

During the casting process be carful to not to let any particular herbs pass into the oil.

*At this point the oil has a spectacular smell! This is an indication that everything is going well, and the extraction of the herbal properties that was expected in this process, has occurred.

Such a Heavenly Aroma!!

STEP #4 ~

Once the oil is completely strained, place the glass container in the warm water of the bain-marie and add the beeswax. Use 40 grams of beeswax.

Next, using a wooden utensil, stir the beeswax so that it melts quickly. , taking advantage of the heat that the water conserves where we carry out the maceration process.

STEP #5 ~

Once the beeswax is melted, remove the glass container with the oil from the warm water and proceed to add the rest of the ingredients.

Adding the Remaining Ingredients…

STEP #6 ~

First add the menthol crystals (approximately 30 grams). Allow them to dissolve in their entirety.

STEP #7 ~

Next, check the temperature of the oil before adding the rest of the ingredients that make up this balm.

When the temperature drops to approximately 130 degrees F, continue.

STEP #8 ~

Then add the small teaspoon of Vitamin E. This ingredient protects all of the ingredients in the balm. Since the recipe is oil-based, Vitamin E acts as a preservative for the product.

STEP #9 ~

Now add 5 drops each of rosemary, eucalyptus and lavender essential oils. Then stir well to incorporate.

Now the balm is complete! I am super-excited to see the finished product. The aroma of this balm blend has blown me away. We are all eager to know how it will look and to sample it.

Decant the Product

The next step is to place our balsam mixture in the containers previously sterilized with alcohol.

This time I decided upon a beautiful 4-ounce glass container in blue to protect the final product very well.

Finally, while the balsam mixture is still warm enough to pour easily, pour it into the containers, then wait for it to harden. Once hardened, I will verify that the consistency is as I expect – a firm but creamy consistency.

I waited about one hour to make sure it was completely hardened. When it was completely cooled, it was time to complete the packaging process.

I am very happy with the packaging that I selected since it brings additional protection to the product that, in addition to looking very good, will offer security to the consumer.

My product is finally packed! Now with help from the canvas program, I am able to create beautiful labels for my product.

This is the information that I included:

  • Product name
  • Product weight and quantity
  • Product ingredients
  • Description and usage suggestions

Well, I won’t make them wait any longer. This is the result and I love it, and my whole family does too!

I really enjoyed this project and must say that In the end I am very satisfied. I tried as much as possible within my knowledge to take care of the details, but I know that there is a lot to learn and I am very eager to do so. I find it to be very exciting, the idea of having the ability to create something that is for the well-being of others and that helps them to live better and in a more natural way. Thank you for the opportunity to be part of this beautiful race.

Antibiotic Resistant Microbes

Before antibiotics, it is estimated that 50 percent of people died from infections. Now, after 75 years of use, statistics reveal that every year at least 2.8 million people are hospitalized with an antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection, which according to 2019 statistics result in at least 48,700 deaths in the United States alone.1 It is worth mentioning 5 percent of hospital patients (about 2 million) who are admitted for routine procedures become infected at some point during their stay.

How’d We Get Here?

Discovered by Scottish biologist Alexander Fleming in 1928, by the mid 1940’s, penicillin, a mold-derived antibiotic became available for commercial use. “In 1945 the Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine was awarded to Alexander Fleming and Howard Florey for their discovery of the antibiotic substance benzylpenicillin from the mould Penicillium notatum.”2

Escherichia coli

The threat of microbial resistance to antibiotics is rapidly increasing each year with devastating effects. These “superbugs” are outracing the drug industry’s ability to keep up with the need. While it may take a human 20 years to reproduce offspring, a bacterium such as E. coli can replicate every twenty minutes!

We’ve Known About this for
Nearly 100 Years!

Bacteria becoming resistant to antibiotics, should not come as a surprise. In his book Herbal Antibiotics, Steven Harrod Buhner writes “Dr. Fleming noted as early as 1929 in the British Journal of Experimental Biology that numerous bacteria were already resistant to the drug he had discovered, and by 1945 he warned in a New York Times interview that improper use of penicillin would inevitably lead to the development of resistant bacteria.”

How Does It Happen?

Bacterial cell division depicting daughter cells receiving both a copy of the chromosome and a copy of a plasmid. Public Domain

Antibiotic resistance occurs because bacteria are able to share genetic material just by being in close proximity to one another.  The genetic material is communicated very quickly in little packages called plasmids.

The word antibiotic when broken down simply means anti ‘against’ and biotic ‘life’. At its core an antibiotic’s design is to function ‘against life’. Its use is intended to kill off certain problematic bacteria. However, antibiotics annihilate most microbes in their path. Microbes have the ability to adapt to hostile elements such as antibiotics while remaining in their environment. What a statement to resiliency in life.


It is alarming how many bacterial species are still becoming resistant to the group of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones (‘fluoro’ because they contain fluoride) that can cause very debilitating side-effects.

Ciprofloxacin Molecule

One example, Cipro (Ciprofloxacin) is a lab-derived chemical structure used as a broad-spectrum antibiotic. Cipro’s “superpower” is that it can destroy anthrax bacillus anthracis bacteria as well as eliminate many other varieties of bacteria (including the helpful ones) because it targets an enzyme essential for DNA transactions that is common to all bacteria.

Intent to keep ahead of the rapidly mutating bacteria, pharmaceutical companies have modified the chemical structure of fluoroquinolones but have been mostly unsuccessful. The Merck Manual states “Many newer fluoroquinolones have been withdrawn from the US market because of toxicity; they include trovafloxacin (because of severe hepatic toxicity), gatifloxacin (because of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia), grepafloxacin (because of cardiac toxicity), temafloxacin (because of acute renal failure, hepatotoxicity, hemolytic anemia, coagulopathy, and hypoglycemia), and lomefloxacin, sparfloxacin, and enoxacin.”3

Conventional Medicine…

The most well-known use of antibiotics occurs as a medicine when a person suffering from a microbial infection visits a hospital or doctor. “A national survey of antibiotic use done by CDC’s Emerging Infections Programs identified key opportunities to reduce inappropriate use. This study found that two out of three antibiotics in hospitals are given for three conditions: pneumonia, urinary tract infections (including bladder and kidney infections), and skin infections.”4

In another study done in 2016, “CDC experts found that overall rates of antibiotic use in U.S. hospitals did not change from 2006-2012. More than half of patients received at least one antibiotic during their hospital stay.  However, there were significant changes in the types of antibiotics prescribed with the most powerful antibiotics being used more often than others.”5

Due to the overuse of antibiotics the threat of antibiotic-resistant microbes looms large in the healthcare industry. The following three-page document linked to the image below is offered for your convenience. The data has been provided by the CDC.

Click the image to view, download, or print the full PDF.

Digging Deeper

The antibiotic discovered by Alexander Fleming was derived from the mold Penicillium chrysogenum. This mold naturally produces the antibiotic with the familiar name, penicillin. Industrially produced by fermentation, penicillin is known to have a high therapeutic index that does not negatively effect human cells.

The modern production of antibiotics now occurs in a lab by one of two methods. The first, semi-synthetic production includes natural fermentation plus laboratory involvement of adding an amino group (NH2) to the R group of penicillin. One result from this production method is the well-known antibiotic named ampicillin.

The second ‘synthetic’ method of antibiotic production occurs solely in a lab. There are no natural antibiotic substances used. The quinalone class of antibiotics are made in this way.

The overuse (misuse) of antibiotics in medicine, is considered a primary cause of antibiotic resistance, however, it is only one of three major routes of exposure. Another that deserves a serious look are the animal husbandry practices that affect our meat supply.

Factory Farmed Animals…

Public Domain

Antibiotics added to animal feed have been used in farming to cause animals to grow bigger and faster by converting the same amount of feed into muscle more quickly.

They are also used to counter the stress that animals are placed under when expected to grow in overcrowded and unsanitary conditions. The constant stress of these conditions breaks down the animal’s immune system making it more prone to disease that ultimately will require antibiotics.

Antibiotics fed to animals affects the bacteria in their body as well. Antibiotic-resistant microbes lodge in their bones and meat and cause imbalances in gut microbes, just as with humans.

When people ingest antibiotic-resistant bacteria
via improperly cooked meat and become ill,
they may not respond favorably to antibiotic treatment.

Antibiotic-resistant microbes can enter the human or animal microbiome orally, via injection, or through inhaled by aerosolization. What is especially disturbing is that antibiotic resistant organisms are finding their way into the remotest areas of the earth. While three percent of wild penguins have antibiotic-resistant bacteria, close to 50 percent of captive penguins in Antarctica have been identified with it.

“In one study published in the New England Journal of Medicine on February 6, 2002, researchers found links that strongly suggested that the people who developed Cipro-resistant bacteria had acquired them by eating pork that were contaminated with salmonella. The report concluded that salmonella resistant to the antibiotic fluoroquine can be spread from swine to humans, and, therefore, the use of fluoroquinolones in food animals should be prohibited.”6

“Another New England Journal of Medicine study from Oct. 18, 2001, found that 20 percent of ground meat obtained in supermarkets contained salmonella. Of that 20 percent that was contaminated with salmonella, 84 percent was resistant to at least one form of antibiotic.”6

Australian scientist Michelle Power states, “about three-quarters of the antibiotics that humans take are actually excreted, ending up in wastewater systems. Places where antibiotics are manufactured are also potential avenues for escape of antibiotics. And then there are the times when animals are taken into care, or raised in captivity and exposed to humans, and then released into the wild. ‘We are seeing a variation in the prevalence [of antibiotic-resistant bacteria] across different wildlife species but why that is the case, we are not sure”.7

Still there is another mode of exposure that is equally as significant yet has been largely ignored. Antibiotics have been routinely used for decades to control bacterial and fungal diseases in plants.

Agricultural Crops…

In a study published in CABI Agriculture and Bioscience, Dr. Philip Taylor and his researchers “found that 11 antibiotics (often blended together) are being recommended on crops grown in the Americas, Eastern Mediterranean, Southeast Asia and the Pacific Rim countries…

There is considerable attention paid to the medical and veterinary use of antibiotics, but there is a paucity of data on their use in global crop production. The only well-documented use of antibiotics on crops is that on top fruit in the U.S. These data appear to indicate that the use of antibiotics in crop production is more extensive than most of the literature would suggest.”8

Vegetables grown in unfertilized soil were equally shown
to harbor antibiotic-resistant bacteria and resistance
determinants that naturally occur in soils. 9, 10

Not only are these crop-sprayed antibiotics that are making their way into the food supply of people and animals, the earth’s waterways are being contaminated through runoff and the microbiome of the soil is being disrupted throughout the world.

The Root of the Problem

The isolation of plant constituents separate out a natural chemical that can be patented and manufactured or synthesized in a laboratory to create a product with more problems than it generally solves. These ‘problems’ are called as side-effects. However, in the case of antibiotics there are also effects on bacteria, fungus, or even enzymes whose response has been changed due to frequent and excessive antibiotic exposure.

How “Antibiotic” Herbs Can Help

An herbal remedy generally consists of one or more plants and the entirety of their chemical makeup. These chemicals are uniquely designed to work in unique synergistic combinations as both an offense and a defense that the plant needs to flourish in its life-cycle.

Over 5,000 distinct plant constituents (the chemical parts of plants) have been identified to date, however, there are thousands more that have yet to be identified. A single plant can have anywhere from 200 to 3,000 constituents! The complexity is simply mind-boggling.

How this natural synergistic combination of plant chemicals work, is unique to each herb and multiplied exponentially when various herbs are used together. The mechanisms of how this works is a wonderful mystery that is only just beginning to become unraveled.

Smart Herbs!

The action of herbs is not antibiotic (against life) in the truest sense of the word. Herbs are considered anti-microbial in a much broader sense as they may affect bacterium, fungi, and even protozoa yet do not destroy those organisms beneficial to the body and its vitality. Perhaps they could better be thought of as “smart herbs”. How they differentiate is amazing, but unknown.

Lemon Balm
Melissa officinalis

A study published in the May 2015 Global Advances in Health and Medicine Journal offered 104 patients with Small Intestinal Bacteria Overgrowth (SIBO) their choice of either four weeks of antibiotic (rifaximin) or herbal therapy.

The herbs used in the herbal therapy were a proprietary mix of Oregano Origanum vulgare, Wormwood Artemisia absinthium, Lemon Balm Melissa officinalis, Goldthread Coptis chinensis root, Indian Barberry Berberis aristata root extract, Horsetail Equisetum arvense L., Thyme Thymus vulgaris, and Olive Olea europaea.

Equisetum arvense L.

The results were encouraging as the research found that “Herbal therapies are at least as effective as rifaximin for resolution of SIBO by LBT. Herbals also appear to be as effective as triple antibiotic therapy for SIBO rescue therapy for rifaximin non-responders.”11 ‘Rescue therapy’ is the term used in this study when the first 4-week course of rifaximin did not resolve the patient’s SIBO and the patient then chose the four-week herbal therapy.

Antimicrobial herbs have properties which are active against two or more groups of pathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, protozoa, etc. There are many herbs with antimicrobial properties. The following is a short list of herbs with demonstrated antimicrobial actions. There are many more that have not been included.

  • Acacia spp., Acacia 12 13
  • Achillea spp., Yarrow 14 15
  • Agrimonia eupatoria, Agrimony 16
  • Allium sativum, Garlic 17 18 19
  • Aloe vera, Aloe 20 21
  • Arctostaphylos ua-ursi, Uva-ursi 22 23
  • Cryptolepsis sanguinolenta, Cryptolepsis 24 25
  • Curcuma longa, Turmeric 26
  • Cymbopogon citrates, Lemongrass 26
  • Echinacea spp., Echinacea 27 28
  • Eucalyptus spp., Eucalyptus 29 30
  • Hydrastis canadensis, Goldenseal 31 32
  • Hypericum alpestre, St. John’s Wort 16
  • Juniperus spp., Juniper 33 34
  • Mahonia spp., Oregon Grape 35 36
  • Melaleuca alternifolia, Tea Tree 37 38
  • Origanum vulgare, Oil of Oregano 15
  • Tinctura propolisi, Propolis 41 42
  • Rumex obtusifolius, Bitterdock or Broad-leaved Dock 16
  • Salvia Spp., Sage 39 40
  • Sanguisorba officinalis, Great Burnet 16
  • Usnea spp., Usnea 43 44
  • Withania somnifera, Indian Ginseng 20, 26
  • Zingiber officinale, Ginger Root 26

Please share your thoughts with us in the comment section below.